Intro to Linguistics

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Intro to Linguistics

Dacayanan, Christian Arjay P.
We all know that Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time. Principal concerns of historical linguistics include: to describe and account for observed changes in particular languages. According to the reporter she says that Modern Historical Linguistics dates from the late 18th century. It grew out of the earlier discipline of philology, the study of ancient texts and documents dating back to antiquity.

At first, historical linguistics was comparative linguistics. Scholars were concerned chiefly with establishing language families and reconstructing prehistoric proto-languages, using the comparative method and internal reconstruction. The focus was initially on the well-known Indo-European languages, many of which had long written histories; the scholars also studied the Uralic languages, another European language family for which less early written material exists. Since then, there has been significant comparative linguistic work expanding outside of European languages as well, such as on the Austronesian languages and various families of Native American languages, among many others. Comparative linguistics is now, however, only a part of a more broadly conceived discipline of historical linguistics. For the Indo-European languages, comparative study is now a highly specialised field. Most research is being carried out on the subsequent development of these languages, in particular, the development of the modern standard varieties.

Some scholars have undertaken studies attempting to establish super-families, linking, for example, Indo-European, Uralic, and other families into Nostratic. These attempts have not been accepted widely. The information necessary to establish relatedness becomes less available as the time depth is increased. The time-depth of linguistic methods is limited due to chance word resemblances and variations between language groups, but a limit of around 10,000 years is often assumed. The dating of the various proto-languages is also difficult; several methods are available for dating, but only approximate results can be obtained.

She also tackled about the Sub-fields of study. Etymology is the study of the history of words. Dialectology is the scientific study of linguistic dialect, the varieties of a language that are characteristic of particular groups, based primarily on geographic distribution and their associated features. Phonology is a sub-field of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language or set of languages. Whereas phonetics is about the physical production and perception of the sounds of speech, phonology describes the way sounds function within a given language or across languages. Morphology is the study of the formal means of expression in a language; in the context of historical linguistics, how the formal means of expression change over time; for instance, languages with complex inflectional systems tend to be subject to a simplification process. This field studies the internal structure of words as a formal means of expression.Syntax is the study of the principles and rules for constructing sentences in natural languages. The term syntax is used to refer directly to the rules and principles that govern the sentence structure of any individual language, as in "the syntax of Modern Irish".

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Re: Intro to Linguistics

lyka jessa e. vinluan
Language is a system that we used to communicate ideas and feelings. And language has five  important features :language is a system,symbolic,conventional,learned and most of all language can change.Because language is dynamics.
In our last topic,I learned about the historical changes of language.Actually I hate history,but  when my classmates discussed about the mythology of language I realized that, to know the history of one thing,even the small thing is very important.
And also my classmates discussed about the sound changes,such as the assimilation,palatalization,nasalization,deletion and also the two words that I am really confused,epenthetis and metathesis.That time, they enlighten my mind if what is the different between the two.
And the last topic that we have is all about the lexical changes.This lexical changes is one of the type of vowel change.In lexical changes I learned the five,if how the words changes,the commonisation,acronym and initialization.When we say the acronym it spoken as a word while the initialization came from the word initial which is spoken as a letter.Our reporter also discuss the blends and shortening,not the shortening that we can used in cooking ,but shortening is to shorten the words.And the last is the borrowing,I am become confused with this,because as our professor said that there is no rules about that.And after the reporting my classmates give a short quiz regarding on her topic.
That time for me our discussion is interesting,I learned more because it easy to me to cope the lesson because the topic that we have is already discuss in my past subject.
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Re: Intro to Linguistics

LUQUINGAN, ARLENE A.
In reply to this post by Dacayanan, Christian Arjay P.
After the discussion of our classmates and teacher about the changes of language, I learned that to know our language background is important, we are dealing in many person in this world, we need to become good in constructing our sentences so that they could not criticize us.. We study about sound changes that affect the pronunciation or the sound system structures.Speakers tend to make their utterances as efficient and effective as possible to reach communicative goals. Languages change for a variety of reasons. Large-scale shifts often occur in response to social, economic and political pressures. History records many examples of language change fueled by invasions, colonization and migration. Even without these kinds of influences, a language can change dramatically if enough users alter the way they speak it.  By using new and emerging terms, we all drive language change. But the unique way that individuals speak also fuels language change. That’s because no two individuals use a language in exactly the same way. The vocabulary and phrases people use depend on where they live, their age, education level, social status and other factors. Through our interactions, we pick up new words and sayings and integrate them into our speech. We can't avoid to communicate to that people who has their unique way of pronouncing words, in order to cope with them we need to leaned their language that's why we are studying the language changes. To be informed about the happenings in our society about the changing of words or sound we need to study the type of language change such as phonetic and phonological changes, spelling changes, semantic changes and syntactic changes. Ms. Rejean  Reyes discussed about the lexical changes which means change in the meaning or use of word.